Cohort Description

The study includes 200 patients with first-episode psychosis, bipolar disorder, 200 individuals at high risk for psychosis and bipolar disorder, and 200 healthy controls between 15 to 35 years of age. Late-onset Schizophrenia and Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia are also recruited by an additional 50 people each. Subjects will be recruited from multiple sites including Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Inje University Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje University Haeundae Hospital, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Yangsan Hospital, Bongseng Memorial Hospital, Dong-A University Hospital, Pusan National University. MRI data will be collected at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital using a 3T Siemens Vida MR scanner. Subjects are assessed on a yearly basis after the baseline, 3 months, six months and one year. We would like to develop a model for predicting transition to psychosis and bipolar disorder by using various biological markers, and present a pluripotent diagnostic system covering various mental disorders at the same time in the direction of RDoC.

Demographics: Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ), Family Interview for Genetics Studies (FIGS), Hollingshead Four-Factor Index of Socioeconomic Status (HFIS), Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS)

Clinical: Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-5-Research Version (SCID-5-RV), Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndrome (SIPS), Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States (CAARMS), Schizophrenia Proneness Instrument, adult version (SPI-A), Bipolar Prodrome Symptom Interview and Scale–Prospective (BPSS-P), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS), Young’s mania rating scale (YMRS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Global Functioning: Social and Role Scales (GF).

Self Reports: Anticipatory and Consummatory Interpersonal Pleasure Scale (ACIPS), Aberrant Salience Inventory (ASI), Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale 10-Item (CD-RISC-10), Childhood trauma and abuse scale (CTAS), The Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ), Embodied Sense of Self Scale (ESSS), Need to Belong Scale (NTBS), Dark Triad Personality Test (DTPT)

Cognition: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS): Symbol-Coding, Category Fluency, Trail Making Test: Part B, Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP), Letter-Number Span, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB): Mazes Test, Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT): Managing Emotions, Bilateral Complex Finger Tapping (BCFT), Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET)


  • sMRI: T1w (MPRAGE) and T2w (SPACE) = 0.8mm isotropic resolution
  • dMRI: 1.8mm isotropic, TR = 5700ms, TE = 93ms, b-value = 500(30), 1000(30) and 2500(30) with 8 AP-PA B0 images
  • fMRI: 2mm isotropic resolution, TR = 1350ms, TE = 35ms
  • MRS: STEAM sequence with TR = 2000ms, TE = 30ms, averages = 128(16) in ACC, Lt. Hipp, Lt. Insular
  • Neuromelanin: 0.8mm x 1.6mm, TR = 44ms, TE = 3.11ms